Garvey’s Black Theology

“There is a God and we believe in Him. He is not a person, nor a physical being. He is spirit and He is Universal Intelligence.”Marcus Garvey

Religion has always been an important part of Garvey’s life. From childhood, when he attended the St. Ann’s Bay Methodist Church, Garvey recognized the importance of The Trinity: God, the Father, God, the Son and God, the Holy Spirit. He was a staunch Christian, so, it is no surprise that he made religion an important part of the work of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). However, Garvey saw the grave need to rewrite the theology that existed and make it relevant to the Black experience. He encouraged an African interpretation of Christianity, which dispelled the white/European interpretation. This he viewed as being a critical component to the uplifting of the Black race, as it would build moral.

Central to Garvey’s idea of religion was that God is black. He rejected the idea of God as white. “We negroes believe in the God of Ethiopia [a black God], the everlasting God – God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost, the one God of all ages”.At the 1924 UNIA Convention, Garvey formalized this belief by canonizing Jesus Christ as the “Black Man of Sorrows” and the Virgin Mary as the “Black Madonna”.

Though Garvey often denied that he was a religious leader, it seemed that he fashioned UNIA meetings to copy church services. Without a doubt, the UNIA was a religious group. This was evident as it had its own distinct set of rituals, beliefs, symbols and commemorations which were developed to instill and represent the deeply held beliefs that bounded the members together. Hymns were sung, scriptures recited and prayers offered. Garvey’s speeches were also often delivered in a sermon-like manner. It should however be noted, that though Garvey was Christian by denomination, he was insistent that the UNIA be inclusive and welcome black people of all denominations. In addition, non-Christians were also accommodated. Consequently, the movement was often described as a “Black Civil Religion”.  

Garvey posited the need for black people to locate themselves within the redemptive graces of God. However, where his ideology differed from that of Christianity was the fact that he was convinced that their Black God would be sympathetic to the plight of Black people and provide solace and success in the present-life. Christianity, on the other hand, promoted hope for the afterlife. Garvey believed the afterlife would take care of itself. He was more concerned with the Black people being redeemed while alive, and he believed that any God they serve would provide this. Garvey used religion as a tool to motivate social, economic and political success of Black people. In his wisdom, he created a religious group that recognized the varying doctrines of its members whilst incorporating all of them in his overall vision of a black liberation theology, one of his main tenets. He sought to place the movement in the appropriate institutional form which he himself characterized as “one great Christian confraternity without regard to any particular denomination.”

Was Garvey enlisted in the US military?

World War I (WWI) (1914-1918) has often been described as one of the deadliest conflicts in world history because it claimed the lives of 8 million military personnel and 6.6 million civilians, as well as left numerous persons physically and psychologically wounded. Though the war fundamentally began as a small tiff between countries in southeast Europe, it snowballed into a huge war with over 30 countries across the world participating. Consequently, WWI had a global impact, especially when Britain entered the war, as Britain engaged its colonies for support. As Jamaica was a British colony, it was no surprise that Jamaicans went to fight in the War. However, not many of us knew that Marcus Garvey had registered to be enlisted to fight in this Great War while he was in the United States of America (USA).

Garvey travelled to the USA on March 23, 1916 and remained there until December 2, 1927 when he was deported. At the time of his entry, WWI was well into its second year. However, the USA did not officially enter WWI until April 6, 1917. After their entry into the War, The Selective Service Act was passed on May 18, 1917, authorizing the President of the USA to temporarily increase the U.S. military. Twenty four million men were registered for the WWI draft. Registrations were held on June 5, 1917 for men aged 21 through 30. Garvey fell in this category as he would have been 29 years of age at the time of the registration (he would celebrate his 30th birthday in August of the same year).

The card indicated that Garvey was an alien in the USA residing at a New York address at the time of the registration. He listed his occupation as being a Journalist employed to the UNIA. He was unmarried with one dependent, his father. Though he was often photographed in military regalia, the card showed that he had never served in the military. Of particular interest was his response to the final question on the card which asked, “Do you claim exemption from draft (specify grounds)?”  He responded that he was “physically unfit”. It should be noted that Garvey’s registration card is not be taken to mean that he had joined the military. Registration does not suggest induction. In fact, only a small percentage of the twenty four million that was registered was actually inducted in the military.      

It isn’t surprising that Garvey provided an excuse to not be inducted in the military, as he thought the war had a negative impact on the peoples of the world. At a meeting of the Baltimore Branch of the UNIA-ACL on December 18, 1918, Garvey said, “But this war has brought about a change. It has driven the men of all races to be more selfish, and Negroes, I think Negroes of the world, have been observing, have been watching carefully, and have been scrutinizing all these statesmen I have named; the statesmen of America and he statesmen of England, and in four and a half years of war, whilst observing them, whilst listening to every word that fell from their lips, we never heard one syllable from the lips of Woodrow Wilson, from the lips of Theodore Roosevelt in America, from the lips of Bonar Law or Balfour in England, as touching anything relative to the destinies of the Negroes of America or England or of the world.”

Dr. Julius Garvey, OJ: A trusted friend of Liberty Hall

Dr. Julius Garvey, Order of Jamaica, is a dear friend of Liberty Hall: The Legacy of Marcus Garvey (LH). Over the years, since the reopening of LH, Dr. Garvey has contributed significantly to LH’s development. From valuable donations of memorabilia to the Marcus Mosiah Garvey Multimedia Museum, to sponsorship of our programmes, Dr. Garvey has been a valued benefactor to LH. There are many who only know of Dr. Garvey as being the son of the Right Honourable Marcus Garvey. However, Dr. Garvey is a notable son of the soil, in his own right. So, who is Dr. Julius Garvey?

Dr. Julius Winston Garvey, retired Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgeon, Medical Professor, Pan Africanist and Human Rights Activist, is the younger son of Marcus Garvey and his wife, Amy Jacques Garvey. Born on August 16, 1933, Dr. Garvey spent most of his formative years in Jamaica. A proud graduate of Wolmer’s Trust High School for Boys, he went on to earn a Bachelor’s degree from McGill University in Canada. He continued his studies to eventually earn his Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) and his Mastery of Surgery (C.M.) from McGill University Faculty of Medicine. As a specialist in the field of thoracic and vascular diseases, Dr. Garvey has taught at universities and given lectures worldwide on the topic. In addition, he has published several articles on thoracic and vascular diseases which have appeared in many peer-reviewed journals.

Having grown up hearing of his father’s philosophies and accomplishments, Dr. Garvey developed an interest in Africa which has led to his encouraging Africans in the diaspora, over the years, to unite and help each other to improve their social and political conditions. He also travels extensively around the world giving lectures on African history and culture, as well as on the life and legacy of his father so that people will not only get a better understanding of his father’s mission, but also to use his father’s teachings to empower Blacks. Dr. Garvey was a founding member and Chairman of the Marcus Garvey Committee International, Inc which served to improve the economic, cultural, educational and spiritual conditions of Africans. He has also served on several Boards including the Board of Education of People of African Ancestry, The Zumbi Foundation, The Brotherhood, The Read Across Jamaica Foundation and The International Network on Appropriate Technology. He is also a Fellow of the African Scientific Institute.

Dr. Garvey has had an avid interest in the education of Jamaican youth over the years which has seen him working with various organizations to improve the curriculum in schools, particularly to include the teaching of Garvey; as well as to build and renovate schools and community centres to facilitate learning. Currently he serves as a Director for the Marcus Garvey in Schools Foundation that intends to inspire the children of Jamaica with the principles and philosophies of Marcus Garvey.

Dr. Garvey has accomplished a lot throughout his life including renovating Kwame Nkrumah’s mausoleum in Ghana (a feat that earned him the title Nana Kwesi III of Safohne) and facilitating the planting of 50,000 trees in Northern Ghana. He was even named Goodwill Ambassador to Senegal by the then President Abdoulaye Wade. However, what could be one of his greatest accomplishments is if he is successful in having his father exonerated of the unfounded charges that caused him to be imprisoned in the United States for approximately two years. He has made several attempts to have this done and tirelessly continues to lead this effort.

Spotlight on Miss Beverly Hamilton

The month of March is celebrated as Women’s History Month. The month is dedicated to reflecting on the often-overlooked contributions of women to history. Consequently, we at Liberty Hall: The Legacy of Marcus Garvey would like to feature a stalwart who dedicated her life to researching Garvey and his works; Miss Beverly Hamilton.

Beverly Hamilton (1944 – 2013) was a Garvey Scholar and Journalist. Born on November 14, 1944 in Jamaica, Miss Hamilton specialized in investigating the cultural initiatives of the Garvey Movement in Jamaica in the 1930s, and its impact on the island’s cultural development. She wrote several articles highlighting Garvey’s productions including his plays. She also looked at the mass choirs, the sporting programmes at Edelweiss Park and the role of his Jamaican newspapers, the Blackman (1929-1931) and the New Jamaican (1932-1933). She did extensive research on the artistic work of various personalities in the Movement including Ranny Williams (Maas Ran), Ernest Cupidon, Daisy Greenidge and Iris Lucille Patterson.

In the 1960s, Beverly Hamilton made it her duty to seek out and interview many elderly Garveyites who constituted the foot soldiers of the movement; this included St. William Grant. This aided her in building a valuable collection of memoirs which she used as reference for publications and presentations. She often made presentations to schools and communities on Africa and Jamaica’s cultural heritage.

Miss Hamilton was a member of the African Studies Association of the West Indies at UWI in the 1960s and 1970s and she participated in the conference marking the centenary of Garvey’s birth where she presented a paper entitled, Garvey and Cultural Development in Jamaica. She later founded the African Liberation Day Committee (ALDC) which organized an annual public activity on May 25, African Liberation Day, also called Africa Day.

Miss Hamilton was also an advocate for the teaching of Garvey in schools and was a founding member of the Friends of Liberty Hall. She worked to make Liberty Hall, 76 King Street, a fitting tribute to the legacy of the Garvey movement.

Miss Hamilton did extensive research over the years, however, she lost her research documents when her house was ravaged by fire in December 2011. Miss Hamilton never fully recovered from that devastation as a lot of what she lost was irreplaceable. She died on July 17, 2013.Though a vast amount of information was eventually lost, she still managed to disseminate vital information, over the years, to the Jamaican people, through various efforts.  

Beverly Hamilton has made a significant contribution to Jamaica’s history, particularly the history of the Garvey Movement; and for this we are extremely grateful.


As we are about to enter the month of February which is not only celebrated as Black History Month but also as Reggae Month, there is the usual heightened awareness of culture here in Jamaica. The month is packed with cultural activities commemorating the respective themes. Discussions surrounding Marcus Garvey often focus on his political involvement, however he also contributed significantly to the cultural development of Jamaica.

Garvey and the Universal Improvement Negro Association (U.N.I.A) were very significant to cultural development in Jamaica because Black people were not given the opportunity to perform in the mainstream artistic community before Garvey came along. So, Garvey was a forerunner, in this regard, as he used his movement to not only train Black people as artistes, but to give them a sense of purpose and direction.

Garvey supported or launched the careers of several performers or artistes. These persons included:

  • Ranny Williams – Dancer, actor, composer and singer
  • Ernest Cupidon – Comedian and impersonator
  • Miss Myrtle Bennett – Soprano

Garvey, himself, was quite talented.  He wrote seven plays and directed several more. He wrote poetry; most of which were written while he was in prison in the U.S.  He wrote songs; the most popular being Keep Cool which he also wrote while in prison in the U.S. Garvey was also an exceptional orator.  

Long after his death in 1940, Garvey continues to influence the Arts. Artists use him as inspiration for art and craft pieces, likewise poets for their poetry. Musicians such as Peter Tosh, Burning Spear and Fred Locks, among others, compose lyrics about him or use his philosophies in their songs. One of the most popular musicians who was influenced by Garvey was Bob Marley. Many of his songs included Garvey’s views on Africa, unity and the upliftment of Black people. Songs like Africa Unite and Redemption Song with the popular lyrics, “Emancipate yourself from mental slavery. None but ourselves can free our minds.”

Finally, Garvey influenced the Rastafari Movement. The movement was founded on Garvey’s philosophy and opinions of a united Black race and repatriation to Africa. This was probably because the founders of Rastafari were Garveyites, Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley and Robert Hinds. Rastas revere Garvey as a prophet and the movement has become one of the most iconic representations of Jamaica’s culture, boasting worldwide recognition and influence.  

Marcus Garvey was a cultured man who had great ideas to empower Black people and build their character, and, he used the Arts extensively to help achieve this.


December is a month many people look forward to, mainly because of the holiday season commemorating the birth of Christ, Christmas. Generally, December seems to be a month of good fortune, for many. For Marcus Garvey, the month of December seemed to have been an eventful, probably memorable one, as well. Let us highlight a few of the events that would have contributed to this.

  • Amy Jacques, Garvey’s second wife, was born on December 31, 1895.
  • Commissioned by Marcus Garvey, the Universal Ethiopian Anthem was written by Arnold Josiah Ford and Mignon Inniss Ford and was officially sung for the first time at a UNIA meeting held at Liberty Hall in Harlem, New York on December 21, 1919.  
  • Garvey courted Amy Ashwood, his first wife, for over five years. After this seemingly long period of courtship, the couple got married in a private ceremony at a Catholic church in Harlem on December 25 (Christmas Day), 1919.  This ceremony was followed by a more elaborate public ceremony and then a reception at the Liberty Hall in Harlem.
  • After having closely monitored the activities of Garvey and the UNIA for several months, the Bureau of Investigation requested that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) investigate them on December 12, 1921.  
  • Garvey was incarcerated for mail fraud and sentenced to 5 years in prison. However, his sentence was commuted by President Calvin Coolidge after having served 2 years and 9 months. Garvey was deported from the US on December 2, 1927. He arrived in Jamaica on December 10, 1927 to a hero’s welcome.
  • The official opening of Edelweiss Park at 67 Slipe Road, Kingston was commemorated with the hosting of a ceremony on December 10, 1928. This venue became the international headquarters of the UNIA in 1929.
  • Garvey was imprisoned for contempt of court because of comments he had made concerning one of the points on his manifesto for his political party, the People’s Political Party, the first official political party in Jamaica. The manifesto stated that there should be “A law to impeach and imprison judges who, with disregard for British justice and constitutional rights, dealt unfairly”. He was sentenced to a fine of £100 and three months at the St. Catherine District Prison, Spanish Town. Garvey was released from prison at 4:00 p.m. on December 19, 1929.

Garvey’s Final Return

November 15, 2022 marked the 58th anniversary of the re-interment of, not only Jamaica’s First National Hero, but arguably Jamaica’s most revered hero, the Right Excellent Marcus Mosiah Garvey.

From 1914 to 1940, Garvey made a tremendous impact on the consciousness of people of African descent all over the world. He ignited an overwhelming sense of racial pride through his “Race First” ideology. He empowered his followers through his push for self-reliance which was realized through the establishment of Black-owned enterprises through his Universal Negro Improvement Association- African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). Garvey’s philosophical reach extended to every country in the Caribbean, Central America and many countries in South America. Though having never set foot on the continent of Africa, Garvey’s influence was very evident there, as well. He inspired leaders there such as Jomo Kenyatta, first President of Kenya and Kwame Nkrumah, first President of Ghana. Even in countries such as Asia and Australia, Garvey’s words resonated with the locals and stirred people to action against colonial occupation and racial discrimination.

In March 1935, Garvey moved to London, England in an effort to rebuild the international influence of the UNIA. He thought that London was the ideal place for the UNIA’s international headquarters because it had become a centre for Black intellectual thought and Pan-Africanism. He remained there until his death on June 10, 1940. He was mourned worldwide.

World War II had begun the year prior to Garvey’s death and so his remains could not be sent back to Jamaica for interment. Consequently, he was buried in the catacombs of St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Kensal Green, west London. In 1956, in recognition of Garvey’s global greatness and the significant part he played in liberating the spirit and minds of his people, the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation erected a bronze bust of Garvey in the George VI Memorial Park in Jamaica. The bust was officially unveiled on November 4, 1956 and was symbolic of Garvey’s love for his people. 

It had been reported that Garvey’s dying wish was to have his body brought back to Jamaica. Despite several unsuccessful attempts after the war to fulfill his wish, it was made a reality in November 1964, some 24 years after his death. Under the initiative of the Jamaican Government steered by then Minister of Development and Welfare, the Hon. Edward Seaga, Amy Jacques Garvey, widow of Marcus Garvey and the UNIA-ACL, Garvey’s remains returned home on November 10, 1964. The body was met on arrival at the airport by Government officials, Mrs. Garvey, sons, Marcus Garvey Jr and Julius Garvey, among others.

Garvey’s body lay in state for five days at the Holy Trinity Cathedral in Kingston where thousands of persons came to pay their last respects. The casket was closed and draped with the UNIA flag. However, UNIA officials along with approximately 200 persons were allowed to view the open casket so as to remove any doubts as to whether it was really Garvey in the casket. Garvey was given a state funeral on November 15, 1964 at the Holy Trinity Cathedral. Following the service, there was a motorcade from the Cathedral to George VI Memorial Park where his remains were reinterred. An estimated thirty thousand people, including UNIA members, government officials and representatives of various commonwealth countries gathered at the park to watch the reburial. A shrine had been erected for Garvey’s final resting place which included the bust that had been previously erected at another section of the park. He was buried in a vault that lies in the middle of a Black Star, a symbol associated with Garvey.   

Liberty Hall: The Legacy of Marcus Garvey hosted a floral tribute on Tuesday, November 15, 2022 at the re-interment site to commemorate Garvey’s return to his home soil.

When I am dead, wrap the mantle of the Red, Black and Green around me, for in the new life I shall rise with God’s grace and blessing to lead the millions up the heights of triumph with the colours that you well know. Look for me in the whirlwind or the storm, look for me all around you, for, with God’s grace, I shall come and bring with me countless millions of Black slaves who have died in America and the West Indies and the millions in Africa to aid you in the fight for Liberty, Freedom and Life.” – Marcus Garvey, 1925

“He built a city which hath foundations”

During the month of October, Jamaica celebrates National Heritage Week which is observed each year during the week leading up to the third Monday in October which is National Heroes Day. Various activities are held during Heritage Week in celebration of our unique culture.

The first National Heroes Day was celebrated on Monday, October 20, 1969 and designated a public holiday in order to honour the sacrifices made by Jamaica’s seven National Heroes. Later on, the day took on additional significance as it was also used to show appreciation to those who have made a meaningful and significant impact on national life through their service and contribution.

With the establishment of the National Honours and Awards Act on July 18, 1969, persons can be formally recognized for their service to Jamaica and her citizens through the conferment of the Honour of one of the Orders of the six Societies of Honour established under the provisions of the Act. These Societies are as follows:

  • The Order of National Hero
  • The Order of the Nation (ON)
  • The Order of Excellence (OE)
  • The Order of Merit (OM)
  • The Order of Jamaica (OJ)
  • The Order of Distinction which has two (2) ranks:
  • Commander (CD), and
  • Officer (OD)

Persons may also be awarded the Badge of Honour or the Medal of Honour.

The Order of National Hero is the most senior Order. The Honour may be conferred upon any Jamaican national, or anyone who is, or was at the time of their death, a citizen of Jamaica and rendered to Jamaica service of a most distinguished nature. A member of the Order is entitled to be styled “Right Excellent” and the motto of the Order is “He built a city which hath foundations”. 

Marcus Garvey has the distinction of being named Jamaica’s first National Hero. He is the embodiment of the motto of the Order. Garvey built a “city” with a firm foundation through his work and the Universal Negro Improvement Association-African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). The man and his philosophy provided the foundation for many social, political and cultural movements, not only in Jamaica, but globally. The late, the Most Honourable Edward Seaga reiterated this point when he said, “Marcus Garvey was one of the enlightened men whose unremitting work helped to shatter the last and toughest layers of that shell of intolerance, which has shackled, burdened and retarded our society for generations. But Marcus Garvey stood on a pedestal of his own, which made his influence felt not only here, and in this region, but in many other places across the world”.  

Garvey is highly regarded as a standard-bearer of early 20th century Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism. In fact, there are those who say he was the most influential Black Nationalist and Pan-African leader to have ever walked the Earth. Though Garvey did not play a role in the process that lead to Emancipation in 1838 as this event preceded his birth, his message sought to empower Blacks across the world to remove the invisible shackles that made them victims to mental slavery. It is for this reason that Mr. Seaga further explained that, “Garvey shattered the mental prison that developed in his part of the world over some 400 years, to let in the fresh winds of liberty and equality which we now breathe today. For this, we made him the first National Hero of Jamaica”.

Garvey’s philosophies are still relevant and as such, his legacy and impact have outlived him. Through these philosophies, blacks today are still charged to expand on the foundation built by this Hero. 

Remembering Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah

Wednesday, September 21, 2022 marked the 113th anniversary of the birth of Ghanaian nationalist leader, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Founder and First President of Ghana. Born, Francis Nwie Nkrumah in the village of Nkroful, he led the Gold Coast’s push for independence from Britain and presided over its emergence as the new nation of Ghana after attaining independence on March 6, 1957. He led the country from independence in 1957 until he was overthrown by a coup in 1966. Nkrumah was highly revered in Ghana for his role in liberating the country from colonial rule. This earned him the title “osagyefo” which is a Twi word that translates to “redeemer” in English because he was viewed by many in Ghana as their saviour. Many Ghanaians also admired him for his pan-African beliefs and policies.

It is no secret that Nkrumah was greatly influenced by Marcus Garvey. He, himself, stated that he would never forget his own humble beginnings and the intellectual debt he owed to Marcus Garvey. He also credited Garvey for some of his political views. At the closing session of the All-African People’s Conference in Accra, Ghana, December 13, 1958, Nkrumah said, “Long before many of us were even conscious of our own degradation. Marcus Garvey fought for African national and racial equality”. Nkrumah also said, “I think that of all the literature I studied, the book that did more than any other to fire my enthusiasm was the Philosophy [and Opinions] of Marcus Garvey published by his wife”.

Garvey’s impact on Nkrumah was manifested in several ways. One such way is the fact that Nkrumah adopted Garvey’s ideology of a united Africa, not just on the continent but also in the Diaspora. John Henrik Clarke posited that Garvey’s “Back to Africa” teaching was consistent with Nkrumah’s call for the creation of an independent African nation. Both recognized that the lack of racial unity would significantly hamper the growth of the race. So, both were relentless in forging this unity amongst all Africans. Other evidence of Garvey’s impact on Nkrumah was in the design of the flag for Ghana; Nkrumah ensured that a Black Star was featured in its centre. He also established Ghana’s Black Star Shipping Line in 1958 “…to break the hold which the monopoly interests, including foreign shippers, have upon our trade”. Both initiatives were in tribute to Garvey.  

So, in recognition of the 113th birthday of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Liberty Hall: The Legacy of Marcus Garvey acknowledges the indelible contribution of this great son of Ghana to the Pan-African movement. Below is a poem which encapsulates the essence of this great leader, written by G. McLean Amissah, journalist, writer, poet and author from Cape Coast, on the first anniversary of Nkrumah’s death, April 27, 1973.

Kwame Nkrumah: Founder & First President of Ghana

Kwame Nkrumah, First President of Ghana

Who that won Ghana’s Independence and Sovereignty

And stirred the Spirit of Freedom in All Africa

Made Ghana great, a nation proud, one in Unity

Enthused Ghanaians with pride in their African Ancestry

Nkrumah, Creator of African Personality

Keen fighter for Freedom, Independence and Unity

Resolute foe of imperialism and racism

Undoubted great Leader of Pan-Africanism

Monarch of Fame, rest peacefully in eternity

And, thank God, your Life and work what priceless heritage

Hail, KWAME, your name fonder shall grow from age to age


Liberty Hall: The Legacy of Marcus Garvey (LH) has been a beacon in its community since its inception in 2003. In an effort to maintain the original purpose of the Liberty Hall established by Garvey, to be a shrine of ‘Negro inspiration and the cradle of Negro Liberation’, whilst remaining true to its primary mission to “inform the public about the work of Jamaica’s First National Hero and to use his philosophy and opinions to inspire, excite and positively affect the self-identity of Jamaican people, while creating social and economic wealth, LH has used various media and tools to convey Garvey’s message, instill and reinforce Garvey’s philosophies and develop and nurture the intellectual capacity and creative skills of students and adults.

Thanks to the collaborative efforts of a group of committed and influential individuals who formed the Friends of Liberty Hall, funds were raised locally and internationally to begin the extensive restoration of Liberty Hall in 2002. The actualization of the restoration is credited to efforts from Friends of Liberty Hall, Ministry of Entertainment, Youth and Culture, the Jamaica National Heritage Trust, and the Government of Jamaica. Consequently, LH has risen from the ashes to honour the memory and work of Marcus Garvey. It is now a living monument to Marcus Garvey which facilitates education, entertainment and empowerment of all Black people. Situated within the volatile Downtown, Kingston area, LH has also been a safe haven for persons. Boasting a welcoming garden to the front of the building, persons can escape the hustle and bustle outside the gates of LH and come enjoy the serene atmosphere provided by nature.

LH forms part of the Institute of Jamaica (IOJ) family as it is a project of the African Caribbean Institute of Jamaica/Jamaica Memory Bank, a division of IOJ, an agency of the Ministry of Culture, Gender, Entertainment and Sport. So, in commemoration of Jamaica 60, LH has mounted a display on the history of LH in the Garvey Great Hall at LH, entitled, LIBERTY HALL: A BEACON IN THE COMMUNITY – THEN AND NOW. Members of the public are invited to come view the display, whether as part of the tour of the Marcus Mosiah Garvey Multimedia Museum, or if you just have an interest to learn more about Liberty Hall. The display will be up until October 2022.