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The relevance of libraries to Garvey

With this week (October 26 – October 30) being celebrated as National Library and Information Week, for many, the ever recurring debate about the relevance of libraries has been rehashed. However, for us at Liberty Hall, it brings to mind the connection between Garvey and libraries. It is not by chance that there is a library at Liberty Hall, the Garvey Research/Reference Library (GRRL). Besides providing a place for persons to come and learn more about Garvey and his movement, Pan-Africanism, and Africa, among other topics, the library serves as a reminder of the role libraries played in shaping Garvey’s development and acts as a medium for the fulfilment of some of his aspirations.

A young Garvey had to leave school when he was only 14 years old so that he could work and help to provide for his family. However, this didn’t stop his desire for knowledge. In order to quench this thirst, he began reading books in his father’s collection. Garvey senior had built a room off the house where he stored his books and newspapers and this is where Garvey junior would often go so that he could read of the experiences of others and learn from what he read. After reading all the books in his father’s mini library, he then delved into his godfather’s library. Alfred Burrowes gave Garvey an apprentice position at his printer in St. Ann’s Bay. This not only provided Garvey with the opportunity to learn about printing and publishing, but it also gave him the chance to make good use of the extensive library Mr. Burrowes owned.

It was these libraries that facilitated Garvey’s learning after leaving school. This is why he was always encouraging persons to read, for example, he said, “Read history incessantly until you master it.”, “Never go to bed without doing some reading.”, and “…read at least four hours a day.” He also recognized that learning did not only take place in the classroom and stated that, “Many a man was educated outside the school room.”    

As for libraries, Garvey instructed us to, “Spend most of your spare time in your library.” He went further to say that, “If you cannot buy books outright and own them, go to your public libraries and read them or borrow them, or join some … library in your district or town so as to get the use of these books.” So, Garvey was aware that libraries played an integral role in the advancement of the Black race. So strongly was his belief and support of this, that one of the planks of his platform when he drafted the People’s Political Party manifesto was to establish a public library in and have civic improvement done for each parish capital.

The Garvey Research/Reference Library endeavours to continue Garvey’s vision by facilitating learning through the provision of material that tells the true history of the Black race, that empowers and uplifts the race and that stimulates the mind and creativity of Black people.

Race First and Black Lives Matter

“In a world of wolves one should go armed, and one of the most powerful defensive weapons within the reach of Negroes is the practice of race first in all parts of the world.”

  • Marcus Garvey

There is no doubt that if Garvey was alive today that he would be a part of the “Black Lives Matter” movement. Black Lives Matter is a global organization, with divisions in the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada, that was founded in 2013 in response to the acquittal of the white murderer of black teen, Trayvon Martin, in the USA.

The mission of the movement, “to eradicate white supremacy and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black Communities by the state and vigilantes”, is very much in keeping with what Garvey, and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) by extension stood for. As such, Garvey would definitely, not only participate, but lead several protests against the injustice being meted out to black people in the USA. He would probably address each gathering by first giving some background as to why Blacks in America should be treated better, why they should be treated equal to all other races. So he would probably start by saying, “Millions of our people in the early days of slavery gave their lives that America might live. From labours of these people the country grew in power, until her wealth today is computed above that of any two nations. With all the service that the Negro gave he is still a despised creature in the eye of the white people.” (1917). He may have gone further to say, “The American Negro is … entitled to all considerations in his country, but unfortunately he is a minority group, without even the prestige of a metropolitan country to enquire of his welfare through an Ambassador.” (1934)  

 At the 1920 UNIA convention in New York, Garvey and some fifty (50) delegates drafted and signed a Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World as a show of protest against the treatment of Black people by their White counterparts. A preamble to the Declaration listed several injustices faced by Black people, not only in America but across the world. The first on the list of rights says:

  • Be it known to all men that whereas, all men are created equal and entitled to the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness …

This speaks to the doing away of white supremacy through the premise that all are created equal.

Other rights which are encapsulated in the BLM movement include:

  • We assert that the Negro is entitled to even-handed justice before all courts of law and equity in whatever country he may be found, and when this is denied him on account of his race or color, such denial is an insult to the race as a whole and should be resented by the entire body of Negroes.  
  • We believe that any law especially directed against the Negro to his detriment and singling him out because of his race or color is unfair and immoral, and should not be respected.
  • We believe that all men entitled to common human respect, and that our race should in no way tolerate insults that may be interpreted to mean disrespect to our color.
  • We believe that the Negro should adopt every means to protect himself against barbarous practices inflicted upon him because of color.
  • We believe that all men should live in peace one with the other, but when races and nations provoke the ire of other races and nations by attempting to infringe upon their rights, war becomes inevitable, and the attempt in any way to free one’s self or protect one’s rights or heritage becomes justifiable.
  • We protest against any punishment, inflicted upon a Negro with severity, as against lighter punishment inflicted upon another of an alien race for like offense, as an act of prejudice and injustice, and should be resented by the entire race.
  • We believe that any limited liberty which deprives one of the complete rights and prerogatives of full citizenship is but a modified form of slavery.
  • We demand of all men to do unto us as we would do unto them, in the name of justice; and we cheerfully accord to all men all the rights we claim herein for ourselves.  

This Declaration of Rights, though drafted in 1920, is very applicable and still very relevant to modern society. This shows that not much has changed since that time in many nations. Therefore, it would be expected that if Garvey were alive and in his prime now, he would be a central figure at these protests as his fundamental philosophy of “Race First” is still very pertinent.    

Kwanzaa vs. Christmas?

In December, we advertised on our social media platforms that we had Christmas cards on sale in our gift shop. In response, one follower commented “Shouldn’t this be Kwanzaa?” Afterwards, we advertised our Pre Kwanzaa Fest and the same follower posted, “This is more like it.” These questions evoked several questions. Is it that this follower is saying that Black people should not be promoting Christmas? As Jamaicans, should we be celebrating an African-American holiday? What did Garvey think about Christmas?

Kwanzaa, the brainchild of Dr. Maulana “Ron” Karenga, is a relatively new observance, having its inception in 1966. Dr. Karenga created this holiday so that African-Americans, who were in the midst of a period of great social change, could have a time when they honour the values of African cultures and be inspired to fight for equality and progress.  Kwanzaa is observed from December 26 to January 1 and is based on seven (7) principles that are believed to be the foundation of strong relationships among individuals, families, and communities.

Christmas, on the other hand, is originally a Christian observance of the birth of Jesus which dates as far back as 221; however it became a popular celebration in the 9th century. It was not until later in the early 20th century that the observance took on the secular components of gift shopping and giving, and Santa Claus.  

Though Garvey was afro-centric, he was also a religious man who celebrated Christmas because he believed in Jesus, as is evident in his December 1921 Christmas Message. He referred to Jesus as “the Christ, the Emanuel to us, the Son of Righteousness, the Prince of Peace”. He began the speech by saying, “To us is born this day the Child Jesus—the Christ. The Shepherds and wise men are now wending their way toward Bethlehem, there to behold the Wonder of God. Because, there, in a manger, is to be found the Baby Christ who is to be the Redeemer of the world”. There is no doubt that Garvey would have also celebrated Kwanzaa, as it was a celebration of Black people. However, it would be highly unlikely that that would shift his belief in the Trinity.

It should be noted also, that Kwanzaa was not designed to replace Christmas. Both serve different purposes. We at Liberty Hall are guided by Garvey’s philosophies and opinions, and as such, whatever we do is in keeping with these principles. I bet Garvey would have liked the Christmas cards we were promoting as the images depicted Black people and the inside was blank, thereby allowing persons to express themselves. He would also have been at our Pre-Kwanzaa Fest to help promote and showcase the talents of our people.    

It is the right of each person to observe both Christmas and Kwanzaa; no one should be forced to choose one over the other.

A true Garveyite from birth: Sister Samad

“… I remember mentally promising Mr. Garvey when I was seventeen years old, that I would call his name every day of my life until his name began to rise again.”

  • Mariamne Samad

Sister Samad, as she was affectionately called, spent her life fulfilling this promise she made to Garvey on the occasion of his death in 1940. As a member of the UNIA’S Juveniles, she spent most of her life living up to the ideals of Garveyism.

Though not Jamaican by birth, we claim her as one of our daughters as she made Jamaica her home after settling here in 1976 with her Jamaican husband. Here, she spent most of her time teaching and lecturing youth on Garveyism and Africa. She made her home into an intellectual space which attracted many scholars as well as those who yearned for knowledge on Garvey, Africa and Pan-Africanism. Every last Saturday of the month, she would open her doors to anyone who was seriously interested in learning about Garvey and the Mother country, Africa. In fact, several Garvey scholars benefitted from Sister Samad’s wealth of knowledge and book collection; of note are Tony Martin, Prof. Rupert Lewis and Beverly Hamilton.

Here at Liberty Hall, Sister Samad was highly respected. She was an avid supporter of our events. She would always arrive in her trusted taxi and sit on the bench at the front of the building. Then, as if the bench set the stage for an interview, many persons would alternate sitting with her and have a talk. She always had a story to tell and never shied away from sharing her experiences with anyone she came in contact with. On one historic occasion, she was engaged in a vibrant conversation with Frank Gordon, another UNIA stalwart who predeceased her. The two sat for hours and related stories about being young UNIA members. The pleasant banter uncovered so much history about a time well before many of those listening existed.    

However, as the years passed, it became increasingly difficult for Sister Samad to attend functions at Liberty Hall. So, we saw her less and less. However, in 2014, at one of her last appearances here, she, along with Dr. Simon Clarke, were interviewed by Mr. Arnold Bertram as they were both former members of the UNIA’S Juveniles. They spoke of how the U.N.I.A impacted their lives, with each of them giving stirring accounts of their experiences as young people within the organization. They took the audience back to the time when the U.N.I.A was a vibrant organization and their parents active members.

Liberty Hall has benefitted significantly from this relationship. Besides books and other material to enhance our Library collection, all of us at Liberty Hall have learnt a great deal from this phenomenal woman.

Sister Samad received many accolades for her work as a practising Garveyite. Two of the many, are she being bestowed with the title of Queen Mother in Ghana in the 1970s. Then later, in 1999, she was installed as Queen Mother here in Jamaica.

We lost a valiant soldier on the afternoon of September 5, 2019. Sister Mariamne Samad, devoted Garveyite, transitioned to the realm of her ancestors after living a full life for 97 years.

Seaga and Garvey

The Most Honourable Edward Philip George Seaga, O.N. P.C., M.P., LL.D. (Hon.), former Prime Minister of Jamaica, 1980-89, played a principal role in the return of the body of Marcus Garvey to Jamaica and in establishing the nation’s highest order, that of National Hero, of which Garvey was the first recipient.

In response to public sentiment for the return of Garvey’s body to Jamaica, Mr. Seaga, as Minister of Development and Welfare, with assistance from Mr. Leslie Alexander, a Kingston auctioneer, began negotiations for the return of Garvey’s body. The matter was put on the Cabinet Agenda and The Most Hon. Alexander Bustamante, then Prime Minister, approved Mr. Seaga’s proposal. After the approval was granted, a special committee of the National Trust Commission was established to make arrangements for the building of a shrine at what was to be Garvey’s final resting place in the George VI Memorial Park, later renamed National Heroes Park in 1973. 

Mr. Seaga’s involvement with Garvey continued well into his tenure as Prime Minister of Jamaica in the 1980s. He lobbied Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush, Sr. for a US Presidential pardon of Garvey on the bogus 1923 mail fraud charges. He also spearheaded the pardoning of Garvey’s 1929 contempt of court conviction in Jamaica, and the purchase of Liberty Hall, at 76 King Street and its subsequent designation as National Monument to commemorate Garvey’s 1987 centenary celebrations.

Liberty Hall is the grateful recipient of a signed copy of the speech Mr. Seaga had given at a symposium in commemoration of Garvey’s centenary at the then Marcus Garvey Building at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, now The Courtleigh Hotel and Suites. He donated it in April 2016.

Mr. Seaga has long been an avid admirer and supporter of Marcus Garvey. He describes him as being “the most important man in Jamaica’s history” and that he was important “not only because of his message but also because of how he believed and conveyed this message”.

Did you know “Maas Ran” was a Garveyite?

Randolph “Maas Ran” Williams (October 26, 1912 – August 11, 1980) was one of Jamaica’s most prominent and talented performing artistes. Born in Panama, he later relocated to Jamaica with his mother. He was said to have always had a passion for acting and so he began doing so at a very early age. In the early days, he used to recite poetry at church, Lodge Halls and school. However, he did not attain professional status until 1930, when he was around 18 years old. His break came when he was invited by Marcus Garvey to become a member of the vaudeville group at Edelweiss Park that he achieved professional status. Vaudeville refers to stage entertainment consisting of various acts such as performing animals, comedians, or singers.

Through the Universal Negro Improvement Association – African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) Garvey encouraged black people to express themselves through the Arts. This was at a time when the Arts was “dominated by expatriates”, according to Prof. Rupert Lewis in his book, Marcus Garvey, Anti-Colonial Champion. Garvey even went further by providing the space for this expression through the establishment of Edelweiss Park in 1927 which operated as a political and cultural centre for black Jamaicans. It was the site for musical  and sporting programmes, concerts, lectures, recitations, elocution and drama contests, and historical pageants.

Ranny Williams was responsible for organizing entertainment for the thousands of people who attended meetings at Edelweiss Park. In fact, several productions at the Park have been listed as having been originated by Ranny Williams, including musical comedies such as “Blacks Gone Wild” and “She’s a Sheba“. He is also credited for a number of the farces and monologues he performed. Maas Ran also composed and sang several songs including one entitled, “The Dog-flea Song”. He was also a dancer, in fact, that is how he started out at Edelweiss Park, as a back line dancer. He explained his reason for transitioning from dancing to acting as follows:

I was first a hoofer [back line dancer]. Soon I was a frontliner and then                    a feature dancer with partners in front of the frontline. A large UNIA                          conference was being held and Mr. Garvey gave me permission to sit in on                  sessions. My observations later formed the basis of successful monologues                  I performed imitating some of the more eccentric and popular delegates”.

Ranny Williams is easily the most popular and outstanding figure the the history of Jamaican theatre scene to have come out of the Garvey movement.

Cut eye and Kiss teet: Jamaican Expressions and their African Connection

The Jamaican culture is characterized by influences from the various ethnic groups that settled on the island. However, the African retentions seem to be most common, we presume because of the large number of enslaved Africans that were brought to Jamaica during the time of slavery and afterwards. As a result, numerous researches have been done on African retentions in the Jamaican culture, including language, food, music and dance. There are, however, other aspects of the culture that need to be explored more deeply. One such area is the non-verbal communication system.

The non-verbal communication system in Jamaica has proven to be a very important part of the country’s language structure. This system is made up of mainly gestures, posture and body movements; expressions through which Jamaicans sometime prefer to express themselves. This is probably owing to the fact that non-verbal communication seems to convey the intended message more effectively than verbal communication.

Now, let us focus on the practices of “cut (y)eye” and “kiss teet”. They are two of the most common non-verbal expressions in Jamaica, and are used generally to convey feelings of displeasure or annoyance. The online West Indian Words Dictionary defines “cut-(y)eye” as an insulting gesture where one person catches the eyes or gaze of another then turns their eyes or gaze away in an exaggerated motion. “Kiss-teet” refers to a sucking noise made with the tongue pressed against the teeth. These gestures are not exclusive to Jamaica, as they are observed in several other Caribbean territories such as Belize, Bahamas, Grenada, Guyana, Dominica, where it is called steups, and Trinidad, where it is called cheups. It is this commonality in the practice of these gestures amongst the various territories in the region that has generated an interest in their origins by the writer.

Researchers have found that the practices of “cut-(y)eye” and “kiss-teet” are mainly, if not only, evident among persons of African descent, not only in the Caribbean but also in North America. This led researchers to believe that these gestures were derived from Africa. So, studies were conducted on various African peoples in their native environments. The findings revealed that “cut-(y)eye” and “kiss-teet” are examples of facial gesture Africanisms. Similar gestures were found in several areas of West and East Africa, and similar terms found in the languages of these areas, such as Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo, Mende and Luo. Therefore, researchers deduced that the practice of “cut-(y)eye” and “kiss-teet” in Jamaica are African survivals.

Here again is another link to our African heritage, found in something we normally wouldnot have given much thought to. This provides further evidence of the significance of the impact of the African legacy on Jamaican culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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A Glance at Twelve Years A Slave

Many of you may have watched the movie which was released in 2013, after all, it was a huge box office success. It won three Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Supporting Actress for Lupita Nyong’o, among other awards.

Twelve Years a Slave, the movie, is an adaptation of the 1853 slave narrative memoir of Solomon Northup. Northup was a free black man having been born to an emancipated slave. However, his life changed dramatically when he was conned, kidnapped and sold into slavery. He was uprooted from New York and taken all the way to Louisiana where he spent 12 years as a slave to various owners. It was when his friends from the north learnt of his location that they were able to secure his freedom.

Though for many, the movie is a very good portrayal of the book, the latter is, by far, much more intriguing than the movie as it gives a deeper insight into the disreputable institution of slavery during the 19th century.  Whilst the producers attempted to give an accurate portrayal of the book, many facts were omitted or distorted as is customary when a film is adapted from a book. For example,  much of  Northup’s inner dialogue was left out of the movie, therefore the actor was limited in ways to manifest his emotions. In addition, the reader gets a better understanding of Northup’s plight through his inner thoughts. This makes the book much more dramatic and captivating than the movie. One glaring omission in the movie is Henry B. Northup’s involvement in Solomon’s return to freedom. Henry Northup was informed by Samuel Bass, a Canadian abolitionist working on the same plantation as Solomon, about the latter’s situation. Subsequent to this, Henry Northup, along with a few of Solomon’s friends, worked tirelessly over several months to have Solomon freed. Omissions of this kind render the film fragmentary.

The significance of this book is that the reader gets a true picture of the “Old South” and there continued enslavement of Black people long after slavery was abolished. You also get a “close-up” of the brutality of slavery, all from the perspective of the enslaved.

In order to get a complete picture of what Solomon Northup experienced in Louisiana, then read the book, Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, A Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841 and Rescued in 1853, From a Cotton Plantation Near The Red River in Louisiana. Several other narratives have been written by former slaves, however, this one is arguably the most riveting of them all. A first edition copy is housed in the Garvey Research/Reference Library as part of our extensive Slavery collection. A similar book of interest in the collection is, The Autobiography of a Runaway Slave by Esteban Montejo. This book gives a vivid account of Montejo’s life on the sugar plantations of Cuba as an outdoor slave and his subsequent escape.       

 

 

From the Library

Did you know that the earliest recorded library in the world was the Royal Library of Alexandria which was built in approximately 300 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. However, it was reportedly destroyed by fire accidentally by Julius Caesar during the Alexandrian War. Nevertheless, the practice of organizing written knowledge and keeping them as  private collections in physical spaces was predominant among West Africans. Later, when the Moors captured some southern European territories, such as Italy, many libraries were established  by the wealthy. During the reign of Al-Hakam II from 961 AD, much emphasis was placed on books because the ruler was passionate about them. According to Robin Walker, in his book, When We Ruled: The Ancient and Medieval History of Black Civilisations,  the Crown Prince invested a lot in books and often sent agents across the Islamic world to procure books. In addition, thousands of books were being produced in the territory each year. Private collections had holdings of between 10,000 to 50,000 books.

The poorer Africans, despite many of them not being able to have a private library, also had a love of books. Consequently, some learned to read would usually read from their masters’ collection. Walker states that “servants or ladies of the harem were of a higher price if they were well-read.” Therefore, it can be seen from those early days that value was placed on being literate/educated.

Marcus Garvey often encouraged persons to read and educate themselves as he recognized from early, the value of education. He believed that it was principally through education that the Black race could be self-reliant and achieve prosperity. So, in keeping with Garvey’s philosophy, the Garvey Research/Reference Library, located at Liberty Hall houses books that will empower persons of African descent and motivate them to create social and economic wealth. The Library’s collection is not limited to material on Marcus Garvey. It also includes scholarly works on Pan-Africanism/ Pan-Africanists, Slavery and Caribbean related topics such as Rastafari.

The book mentioned in this blog is available at the Garvey Research/Reference Library among many others that will demystify many of the myths and notions perpetuated by persons not in the know.

In the featured image is Deputy Minister of International Relations and Cooperation and Chairman of the Pan-Afrikan Centre  of Namibia (PACON), Ms. Maureen Hinda and a member of her entourage perusing the Garvey Research/Reference Library Collection during their visit to Liberty Hall on July 29, 2015.